Adrenaline, also called epinephrine, is a hormone released by your adrenal glands and some neurons. The adrenal glands are located at the top of each kidney. They are responsible for producing many hormones, including aldosterone, cortisol, adrenaline, and noradrenaline. Adrenal glands are controlled by another gland called the pituitary gland. The adrenal glands are divided into two parts: outer glands adrenal cortex and inner glands adrenal medulla.
The inner glands produce adrenaline. Adrenaline helps your body react more quickly. It makes the heart beat faster, increases blood flow to the brain and muscles, and stimulates the body to make sugar to use for fuel. An adrenaline rush begins in the brain. When you perceive a dangerous or stressful situation, that information is sent to a part of the brain called the amygdala.
This area of the brain plays a role in emotional processing. If danger is perceived by the amygdala, it sends a signal to another region of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is the command center of the brain. It communicates with the rest of the body through the sympathetic nervous system. The hypothalamus transmits a signal through autonomic nerves to the adrenal medulla. When the adrenal glands receive the signal, they respond by releasing adrenaline into the bloodstream. The bodily changes that occur as adrenaline circulates throughout the blood is commonly called an adrenaline rush because these changes happen rapidly.
In fact, they happen so fast that you might not even fully process what is happening. Although adrenaline has an evolutionary purpose, some people take part in certain activities just for the adrenaline rush. Activities that can cause an adrenaline rush include:. A mind full of thoughts, anxiety, and worry also stimulates your body to release adrenaline and other stress-related hormones, like cortisol known as the stress hormone.
This is especially true at night when you lie in bed. So this extra boost of energy you get from the adrenaline rush has no use. This can leave you feeling restless and irritable and make it impossible to fall asleep. Adrenaline may also be released as a response to loud noises, bright lights, and high temperatures.
Watching television, using your cellphone or computer, or listening to loud music before bedtime can also contribute to a surge of adrenaline at night.
Experiencing some stress is normal, and sometimes even beneficial for your health. But over time, persistent surges of adrenaline can damage your blood vessels , increase your blood pressure, and elevate your risk of heart attacks or stroke. It can also result in anxiety , weight gain, headaches, and insomnia. It helps promote equilibrium in the body, and allows your body to rest and repair itself.
Medical conditions that cause an overproduction of adrenaline are very rare, but possible. A tumor of the adrenal glands, for example, can overstimulate the production of adrenaline and cause adrenaline rushes.
Additionally, for people with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , memories of the trauma may elevate adrenaline levels after the traumatic event. Weighted blankets can help you manage your anxiety and sleep more deeply. Constant stress can increase your risk for long-term health issues like heart attack and diabetes. Although some types of stress are normal and…. Anxiety is the most common mental illness in the United States. My "worry brain" has given me sharp eyes, strong focus, and emotional depth. These are ways that anxiety has made me a stronger and better person.
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What are the symptoms of an adrenaline rush? Adrenaline rush at night. How to control adrenaline. When to see a doctor. The Effects of Stress on Your Body. Can Stress Trigger Shingles? Read this next. Medically reviewed by Timothy J.
Medically reviewed by Judi Marcin, MD. Legg, Ph.